SPEAKER NUMBER TRENDS
- MORE ON VITALITY
The first-language speakers are aging, but sustained interest in cultural revitalisation, which grew precipitously in the 1970s, has led to a growing population of younger second-language speakers (Bonvillain, 1973).
- SPEAKER ATTITUDE
- Robust language revitalisation efforts are ongoing, and the language is of great cultural importance to the Kanien’kehá:ka people. Several immersion programs offer language classes. Websites and apps support digital learning and communication.
Code-switching is frequent in conversations.
- GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
- INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT
- OTHER LANGUAGES USED BY THE COMMUNITY
- More on Orthography
In the 18th & 19th centuries, English and French speaking missionaries developed separate orthographies. In the 1970s, educators, translators, and Elders in Kahnawake and Kanesatake developed a new orthography using the French basis with additional features. In the 1990s, this was further refined to accommodate community dialect differences.
Used online in a variety of textual registers from casual social media to pedagogical content.